9.1 Element Types

The vast majority of composites are used in the form of shells [2, Chs. 6 & 10][3, Ch. 4]. Although, shell elements are not the only ones used, they are prominent. A list of shell elements available in Abaqus™ is shown in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1: Shell elements available in Abaqus™ 6.10.
 

Three-dimensional conventional shell elements

STRI3(S)

3-node triangular facet thin shell

S3

3-node triangular general-purpose shell, finite membrane strains (identical to element S3R)

S3R

3-node triangular general-purpose shell, finite membrane strains (identical to element S3)

S3RS(E)

3-node triangular shell, small membrane strains

STRI65(S)

6-node triangular thin shell, using five degrees of freedom per node

S4

4-node general-purpose shell, finite membrane strains

S4R

4-node general-purpose shell, reduced integration with hourglass control, finite membrane strains

S4RS(E)

4-node, reduced integration, shell with hourglass control, small membrane strains

S4RSW(E)

4-node, reduced integration, shell with hourglass control, small membrane strains, warping considered in small-strain formulation

S4R5(S)

4-node thin shell, reduced integration with hourglass control, using five degrees of freedom per node

S8R(S)

8-node doubly curved thick shell, reduced integration

S8R5(S)

8-node doubly curved thin shell, reduced integration, using five degrees of freedom per node

S9R5(S)

9-node doubly curved thin shell, reduced integration, using five degrees of freedom per node

 

Continuum shell elements

SC6R

6-node triangular in-plane continuum shell wedge, general-purpose, finite membrane strains

SC8R

8-node hexahedron, general-purpose, finite membrane strains

 

Axisymmetric shell elements

SAX1

2-node thin or thick linear shell

SAX2(S)

3-node thin or thick quadratic shell

SAXA1N

Linear interpolation, Fourier shell element with 2 nodes in the meridional direction and N Fourier modes

SAXA2N

Quadratic interpolation, Fourier shell element with 3 nodes in the meridional direction and N Fourier modes