Figure 10.3 of the textbook is reproduced below:

Torque , and bending moments , are positive following the conventional right-hand rule.

In CADEC, three moments can be input, which are free vectors (i.e., invariants w.r.t. translations). Also, a number of forces can be input. Each force is a vector described by its three components and the point of application *x, y, z,* of each force.

The horizontal (*y*) and vertical (*z*) components of the forces produce shear bending w.r.t. the c.g., and torque w.r.t the shear center, calculated in Equation 10.1.

The axial component of the forces add up to a total axial force applied at the mechanical neutral axis of bending (c.g.),^{1} plus bending moments calculated in (Equation 10.2– 10.4).

In summary,

(10.1) |

and

(10.2) | |||||

(10.3) | |||||

(10.4) |

**Footnotes**

- For inhomogeneous materials, the mechanical neutral axis of bending is not necessarily the center of gravity but it is abbreviated c.g. to follow tradition.